Hook up with hermaphrodite

The perception of such a water-borne signal is sufficient to trigger the observed shift in sex allocation, i.e., a suppression of the female function, irrespective of the frequency of encounters with conspecifics.Under natural conditions, such a pheromone will favor partners' encounters and the adjustment of individual sex allocation according to the numbers of reproductive competitors and/or potential partners.Particularly in the field of sex allocation, there is a lack of research on the mechanisms and cues involved.We address this problem in the outcrossing simultaneous hermaphroditic polychaete hermaphrodites can evaluate group size by means of a species-specific chemical released by mature individuals in water.However, no paper, to our knowledge, has addressed the question of the cues that hermaphrodites use to assess their social environment, although simple decision-making mechanisms are expected.

One of the greatest remaining problems in the field of sex allocation is the variation across species of the extent to which individuals adjust their offspring sex ratio or sex allocation according to environmental conditions.

Gonochorists have to choose the optimal sex ratio for their offspring when they become sexually mature without knowing what environment they will meet.

Hermaphrodites can simply choose to invest in the gender that yields the highest immediate success.

In the sequential hermaphrodite , water-borne pheromones produced by females attract males (Berglund, 1990), and the “pair culture effect” (resulting from the fact that placing two mature females together causes one of the two to change sex, Hartmann and Huth, 1936) is induced by a lipidic pheromone (Marchionni and Rolando, 1981).

There is increasing evidence that hermaphrodites adjust their sex allocation on the basis of social conditions (Lorenzi, et al., in press; Raimondi and Martin, 1991; Schärer and Ladurner, 2003; Schärer et al., 2005; Trouvé et al., 1999) and partner state (Anthes and Michiels, 2005; Koene and Ter Maat, 2005).

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    The catalysts’ surface properties: specific surface area, charge and adsorption capacitance at the solid–solution interface were characterized using BET analysis, potentiometric titration and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively.